马兰谣镜头集:形容词副词比较级最高级变化形式归纳

来源:百度文库 编辑:旧事旧闻 时间:2020/04/06 22:13:04
大多数形容词和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级,用来表示事物的等级差别。
原级即形容词的原形,比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化两种。  规则变化
◇单音节以及少数双音节的词后面直接加-er , -est
原级
比较级
最高级
tall
taller
tallest
smart
smarter
smartest
short
shorter
shortest
特别提醒:以-y,-er, -ow, le结尾的双音节形容词末尾加er和est。
如:healthy, funny, busy, hungry, easy, happy, early, pretty, lazy, heavy, dirty, clever, narrow等。
◇以不发音的e结尾只加-r,-st
原级
比较级
最高级
nice
nicer
nicest
fine
finer
finest
large
larger
largest
◇“以辅音字母+y”结尾的词改y为i,再加-er, -est
原级
比较级
最高级
easy
easier
easiest
pretty
prettier
prettiest
happy
happier
happiest
funny
funnier
funniest
busy
busier
busiest
◇以一个元音加一个辅音字母结尾的单音节词(即重读闭音节词),双写结尾的辅音字母,再加-er,-est
原级
比较级
最高级
slim
slimmer
slimmest
thin
thinner
thinnest
hot
hotter
hottest
big
bigger
biggest
特别提醒:new, few, slow, clean等词含有字母组合,且发的是长元音,不用双写。
◇大部分双音节词和多音节的词(即音标中含有三个或三个以上元音音素的词),要在前面加 more,most
原级
比较级
最高级
beautiful
more beautiful
most beautiful
important
more important
most important
interesting
more interesting
most interesting
expensive
more expensive
most expensive
popular
more popular
most popular
特别提醒:以形容前缀un构成的三音节形容词不适合上述情况,
如unhappy----unhappier----unhappiest,
untidy----untidier----untidiest
◇以形容词+ly构成的副词要在前面加 more,most
原级
比较级
最高级
slowly
more slowly
most slowly
quickly
more quickly
most quickly
angrily
more angrily
most angrily
softly
more softly
most softly
noisily
more noisily
most noisily
特别提醒:early ----earlier----earliest
◇由ING分词和ED分词演变过来的形容词(包括不规则动词如know→known)只能加more或most来表示它们的比较级和最高级。
原级
比较级
最高级
interesting
more interesting
most interesting
excited
more excited
most exciting
tired
more tired
most tired
boring
more boring
most boring
不规则变化
原级
比较级
最高级
good/well
better
best
bad/badly/ill
worse
worst
many/much
more
most
little
less
least
far
farther/further
farthest/furthest
old
older/elder
oldest/eldest
特别提醒:
◇further不仅可以指“距离更远”,还可指“程度更深”。
记住以下三个词组:further study(进修)
further education(继续教育)
further information (进一步的信息)
◇elder仅用于同辈之间的排行,如: elder sister(姐姐)
elder brother (哥哥)
◇less作为“更少”仅用来修饰不可数名词,修饰可数名词表示“更少”要用fewer。
以下内容不作为初中英语教学内容,仅供拓展之用。
◇少数单音节词前面加 more, most 构成比较级和最高级,这类形容词一般为表语形容词和由过去分词变成的形容词。
afraid ---- more afraid, most afraid
tired ---- more tired , most tired
fond ----- more fond , most fond
glad ----- more glad , most glad
bored ---- more bored , most bored
pleased---- more pleased , most pleased
◇下列形容词和副词的比较级和最高级有两种形式,即:既可加-er/-est也可加more/most
cruel, strict, often, friendly, clever
◇下列形容词和副词没有比较级和最高
(即表示“最高程度”或“绝对状态”的形容词和副词没有比较级和最高级)
empty, wrong, perfect, unique, extreme, excellent, favourite, true, right, correct, extremely ...
形容词副词比较级最高级使用注意事项
◇比较应在同类事物之间进行。 误:Your English is better than me.
正:Your English is better than mine.
◇比较级前可以有一个表示程度的状语,最常见的三大修饰词是:a little, much, even。
以下单词也可用来修饰:any, far, still, a lot, yet, rather。
My sister is a little taller than me.
Their house is much larger than ours.
另外,名词短语也可修饰比较级,说明程度。
I’m three years older than he.
特别提醒:very, quite, too不可修饰比较级。
◇避免重复使用比较级。
误:He is more kinder to small animals than I.
正:He is much kinder to small animals than I.
误:He is more cleverer than his brother.
正:He is cleverer than his brother.
◇比较要符合逻辑,在同一范围内比较时,避免将主语含在比较对象中,这时需使用other来排除自身。
误:China is larger that any country in Asia.
正:China is larger than any other country in Asia.
误:John studies harder than any student in his class.
正:John studies harder than any other student in his class.
正:John studies harder than any of the other students in his class.
正:John studies harder than anyone else in his class.
◇比较要遵循前后一致的原则,注意前后呼应。
The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing.
It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.
◇序数词通常只修饰最高级。
Africa is the second largest continent.
The Yellow River is the second longest river in China.
This is the third most popular song of Michael Jackson.
◇为避免重复,我们通常用that, those, one, ones代替前面出现的名词。that代替可数名词单数和不可数名词,those代替可数名词复数。one既可指人又可指物,只能代替可数名词。
The weather in China is different from that in America.
The book on the table is more interesting than that(或the one)on the desk.
A box made of steel is stronger than one made of wood.
误:In winter, the weather of Beijing is colder than it of Shanghai.
正:In winter, the weather of Beijing is colder than that of Shanghai.
◇“否定词 + 比较级”相当于最高级。
----Wait until we get a satisfactory reply, will you?
----I couldn't agree more. The idea sounds great to me.
Nothing is so easy as this. =Nothing is easier than this. =This is the easiest thing.
◇比较级前一般不加冠词。但表示两者中较突出者,且比较级后又有名词或出现了of the two,这时比较级前一定要加the。
He is the taller of the two.
Of the two jobs,he chose the harder.
Which is the younger one, Lily or Lucy?
试比较:
Which is larger, Canada or Australia?
Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia?
She is taller than her two sisters.
She is the taller of the two sisters.
◇不含than 的比较级前可加不定冠词修饰,构成“a/an+比较级+单数可数名词”表示 “一个更……的人/物”。
Why don’t you use a sharper knife? 你为什么不用一把更锋利的刀呢?
◇比较级than 后应用人称代词的主格,但非正式语体中常用宾格。
He is taller than I/me.
◇为避免重复,比较级中同样的动词用助动词do, does, did替代。
I spend less time doing homework than John does.
She tells more funny jokes than we do.
以下内容不是初中教学的重点,仅供拓展之用。
◇形容词most前面没有the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示“非常”。
It is a most important problem. =It is a very important problem.
◇倍数表达法
▲A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B.
The new building is four times the size(the height)of the old one.
这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大(高)/这座新楼比那座旧楼大(高)三倍。
▲A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B.
Asia is four times as large as Europe. 亚洲是欧洲的四倍大/亚洲比欧洲大三倍。
▲A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B.
Your school is three times bigger than ours.你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。
用times表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用twice或double.
形容词副词比较级最高级重点句型归纳
◇句型一:形容词或副词比较级+than… □注意事项:
该句型为比较级的最基本句型。只要看到than,即可确定前面使用比较级。
He is taller than I am.
The boy does his homework more carefully than the girl.
◇句型二:less + 形容词的原级 + than
□注意事项:
该句型表示“不如、不及”,特别需要注意的是,less本身就是little的比较级,后面必须跟形容词的原级,否定就造成了比较级的重复使用。
This computer is less expensive than that one.
◇句型三:as +形容词或副词的原级+ as
□注意事项:
该句型表示对比的两者程度相当,as之间必须跟形容词或副词的原级,决不能使用比较级。此外,还要确定使用形容词还是副词。确定的依据就是根据第一个as前的动词,如果是系动词(如be,感官动词look, sound, smell, taste, feel等),那么就用形容词的原级,如果前面的动词是一般的实义动词,那么就必须用副词的原级修饰动词。
This lesson is as easy as that one.
Lucy talks with old people as politely as her sister.
特别提醒:as…as之间也可以跟名词,句型如下:
☆as +形容词+ a/an +单数名词+as
He is as kind a person as his father. 他和他爸爸一样都是善良的人。
☆as + many/much+不可数名词/可数名词复数+as
I can carry as much paper as you can. 你能搬多少纸,我也能。
I have as many books as you do. 我的书和你的一样多。
We’ll give you as much help as we can. 我们将尽我们所能给你帮助。
其它几个关于as…as的句型:
☆as … as one can:尽其所能
He began to run as fast as he could.
☆as … as possible:尽可能
Please help us as quickly as possible.
☆as soon as…一……就……
He will call me as soon as he comes here.
◇句型四:not as/so +形容词或副词的原级+ as
□注意事项:
该句型表示“前者不如后者……”,往往可以与句型一和句型二替换。第一个as可以换为so。
This classroom is not as bright as yours.
I cannot run as fast as you.
◇句型五:the +形容词或副词最高级+ in / of / among +比较范围
□注意事项:
如果这里为副词最高级,前面的the常常省略。介词in和of的用法完全不一样。in表示“在某一范围内”,如:in the classroom,in the world。of表示“在同类之间”,of后面的词与主语同类,另名词前一般有冠词the。among表示“在(三者或三者以上)之间”,among后接代词或没有修饰语的名词。
The Changjiang River is the longest river in our country.
Peter is the tallest of the six students.
This picture is the most beautiful among these.
◇句型六:one of + 形容词最高级+可数名词复数形式
□注意事项:
one of有三大考点:1. 后跟形容词最高级;2. 后接可数名词复数形式;3. 作主语时主语为one,谓语动词用单数形式。
One of the smallest dinosaurs was about one metre long.
◇句型七:比较级+and +比较级 / more and more +多音节词的原级
□注意事项:
该句型表示“越来越……”,如果该形容词比较级构成形式加er,则用前面的句型;如果该形容词比较级加more构成,则用后面的句型。
It is getting hotter and hotter.
The girl is becoming more and more beautiful.
◇句型八:the +比较级+…, the +比较级+…
□注意事项:
该句型意思为“越……就越……”,表示两种情况同时变化。
The more you eat, the fatter you will be.
In the test, the more careful you are, the fewer mistakes you will make.
◇句型九:be different from
□注意事项:
该句型没有运用比较级,但也是对两者事物进行比较。注意前后比较需在同类事物中进行。
My schoolbag is different from yours.
◇句型十:the same as… / the same…as…
□注意事项:
该句型同样没有运用比较级,表示两者之间具有共同特性。注意这里的as和same为固定搭配,不能随便变换。
I don’t want to buy the same things as Amy did.
◇句型十一:比较级+than + any other +名词单数形式
□注意事项:
any other 后面跟单数名词,表示“任何别的”,即主语在范围内,必须把自身从这一范围内除去,否则逻辑上不通。如果主语不在这一范围内,那么要把other去掉,只用any即可。
Shanghai is larger than any other city in China. (上海在中国这个范围内,所以用any other)
Shanghai is larger than any city in Jiangsu. (上海不在江苏,所以只需用any)
◇句型十二:比较级+than + the other +名词复数形式
□注意事项:
该句型相当于any other +名词单数形式,常用来进行同义句改写。该句型与句型十一虽然波表面上都是比较级,但实际上相当于最高级。以下三句表达的是同一个意思。
Daniel is the most hard-working student in our class.
Daniel is more hard-working than any other student in our class.
Daniel is more hard-working than the other students in our class.
特别提醒:表示两者(人或物)比较时,比较的对象应是同类事物,不同类的事物之间无法进行比较。